Campania has one of the longest histories of winegrowing in the whole of Italy. Archeological studies have shown the importance of wine production in Campania in the ancient world and provide evidence of the techniques used for the cultivation of the vine and the production of wine in the early history of the region. Today, the combination of the celebrated climate, the rich volcanic soils and the top quality local varieties make Campania one of the most exciting wine producers of southern Italy. The majority of the region's vineyards, from the Island of Capri to the volcanic mountains of Irpinia, are situated high above sea level in micro-zones which favour both red and white wines.

Monovarietals from Falanghina, Greco di Tufo and the aristocratic Fiano lead the field in the area of white wines. The top red is grape is Aglianico, which is responsible for Taurasi, one of the great wines of southern Italy. The total production of the region is about 3 million hectolitres a year, only 2% of which however qualifies for DOC.